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This page last revised 31 August 2006 -- S.M.Gon III
TNC Action Sites
Maps & Figures
Wet cliffs in the Ko'olau Mountains provide refugia for species of rare plants.
The bulk of the species of the endangered genus Achatinella are found in the lowland wet system of the Ko'olau conservation area.
Although not a rich forest bird site, the wet forest of the Ko'olauconservation area supports common endemic birds such as this 'apapane (Himatione sanguinea).
The flora of O'ahu boasts a high percentage of island-level endemism. Pritchardia martii is a palm found only in the Ko'olau Mountains.
Ko‘olau Conservation Area Profile
Thesummit region of the Ko'olau Mountains is rugged, undeveloped, andnative-dominated. The prevailing ecological system is Lowland Wet.
Ecological Systems: Two ecological systems of the Ko‘olau Conservation Area were selected as conservationtargets, each bearing nested natural communities and species (discussedbelow).
Other systems have POOR overall viability and are not included.
Selected stream occurrences:O‘ahu bears somehigh quality streams, and the four streams selected: Kaluanui,Kahana, Anahulu, and Punalu‘u Streams are among thelargest and highest quality streams on the island (Hawai‘i StreamAssessment 1991).
Special Ecological Features:
The O‘ahu Waterbird Concentration is defined as five core wetlands and at least ten of 13 wetland sites identified by the USFWSWaterbird Recovery Plan (2005). These include coastal, and riverinesites outside of but adjacent to the ecological system targets of both Ko‘olau and Wai‘anae conservation areas.Nested Targets:
‘Ōhi‘a/Uluhe Lowland Wet
Uluhe Lowland Wet Shrubland
Koa/‘Ōhi‘a Lowland Mesic
Mixed Fern/Shrub Wet Cliff Community
Mixed Shrub Dry Cliff Community
There are manyconstituent native species that comprise the natural communities of the ConservationArea. Highlights include over 40 rare/endangered plant species, over 200 endemicplant species, and an untold number of endemic invertebrate species likelynumbering in the thousands.Major Threats:Uncontrolledferal ungulates (primarily pigs); and a large variety ofinvasivealien plants, including Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolius), alien grasses, Koster's curse (Clidemia hirta), and strawberry guava (Psidium cattelianum). Alien grasses in dry settings contribute to a significant wildfire threat.
|Thenative-dominated ecological systems of O‘ahu occupy theupper elevation areas of both Wai‘anae (West) and Ko‘olau(Northeast) mountains, extending downward into areas (pink)converted into anthropogenic andalien-dominated regions.|
| Thenative-dominated ecological systems of O‘ahu occupy theupper elevation areas of both Wai‘anae (West) and Ko‘olau(Northeast) mountains, extending downward into areas (pink)converted into anthropogenic andalien-dominated regions. All selected continuous perennial streams flow from the Ko'olau Conservation Area. || |
|Adiagrammatic crosssection of the Island of O‘ahu indicates the variety of moistureand elevation conditions present: a lowland wet summit (Ko‘olauMountains), and mesic to dry systems, with a montane wet cap (Wai‘anaeMountains).|